Founded in 1854, the First Presbyterian Church commissioned noted architect Wallace K. Harrison in 1953 to design its present structure. Harrison was both a contributing architect and coordinator of such major public buildings as the United Nations, Rockefeller Center and Lincoln Center. The structure, which was completed in 1958, is thought to be one of the finest examples of religious modern architecture along with those designed by Le Corbusier, Philip Johnson and Frank Lloyd Wright. Its reinforced concrete and stained glass walls are formed from more than 20,000 individual chunks of inch-thick glass – a stained glass technique called “dalle de verre“. The stained glass design on the right side of the church’s sanctuary suggests the story of the crucifixion and on the left, the story of the resurrection. The windows in the narthex or rear of the church displays symbols of communion and peace. Although not intentional, the church’s sanctuary has been likened to the form of a fish in both profile and floor plan – a symbol used in early Christianity.
Gathered by Roger Williams in 1638, The First Baptist Church in America is the first and longest running Baptist church congregation in the United States. The present home of the First Baptist Church is currently housed in its third building. Completed in 1775, the structure’s architectural style combines Georgian with the traditional New England meetinghouse style with its plain walls, clear glass windows, and dominant pulpit. The lack of religious symbols follows iconoclastic Baptist thought, which regard all symbols, even the cross, as icons and idols. It is the first Baptist meetinghouse to have a steeple and bell in an effort by eighteenth century Baptist advocates to bring greater respectability and recognition to their faith. Roger Williams, the founder of this church and a significant campaigner for religious freedom, was in-part responsible for Rhode Island being a unique haven for religious liberty in the seventeenth century.
Founded in 1846, All Saints Memorial Church is the largest Episcopal church building in the state of Rhode Island. Designed by architect Edward Tuckerman Potter, the Gothic style structure was completed in 1872 as a memorial to the Right Reverend John P.K. Henshaw, who was the fourth bishop of Rhode Island. The eighteen lancet windows on the sides and rear of the 135 foot long sanctuary are a mixture of memorial windows and series depicting the life of Christ. At the front of the church above the altar is the 38 foot tall stained glass window, which portrays the resurrected Christ. The inscription at the bottom of the window reads, “Behold He Cometh!”
Completed in 1813 under the leadership of local craftsman William Rhodes, the Federal style Round Church is a sixteen-sided meetinghouse that was built to serve the community as a meeting place and a church for the area’s five Protestant congregations. Nevertheless, shortly after the building was constructed, several of the individual congregations built their own churches and the structure reverted to the Town of Richmond to become exclusively a meetinghouse beginning in 1880. In 1973, the Round Church closed due to safety concerns. As a result, the Richmond Historical Society was formed and with the generosity of the community’s time and money as well as its ability to secure grants, the Round Church remains today—serving as a testament to the now rare traditional New England sixteen-sided meetinghouse.
Nestled on top of Christian Hill within a densely wooded area of Cape Neddick, which overlooks the Gulf of Maine, resides St. Peter’s by the Sea. Built on the location where open air church services had been held during the summers since 1850, this Episcopal chapel continues the tradition. Consecrated in 1898, the rustic stone and wood structure is built in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, which draws upon 11th and 12th century southern French, Spanish and Italian Romanesque architecture. Its location is intentional, as the family who bequeathed the land and funded St. Peter’s construction wanted the Church’s cross to be visible to the fishermen at sea.
The congregation of Old South Church in Boston was gathered in 1669 to serve all who seek a spiritual journey in Christian faith. Completed in 1875, the church’s highly ornate Gothic Revival Style is atypical of a traditional New England congregational church. While architects Charles Amos Cummings and Willard T. Sears‘ design intention was to, “radiate the opulent taste and the sense of optimism and progress of the Industrial Revolution following the Civil War”, the congregation has been recognized for equality and social justice, with such notable congregants as Samuel Sewall who published the first anti-slavery writing in the United States in 1700, The Selling of Joseph. As poet John Greenleaf Whittier eloquently wrote, ‘So long as Boston shall Boston be, And her bay tides rise and fall, Shall freedom stand in the Old South Church, And plead for the rights of all.”
Providing a haven for the Catholic community on the Boothbay Peninsula, Our Lady Queen of Peace has been home to year-round residents as well as seasonal visitors since its dedication in 1926. Its founding parish was a historic mix of immigrants, artists, servants, fishermen, merchants and builders. Stained glass windows honor many of the early families who nurtured Catholic presence in the region.
Inspired by the reliance upon the surrounding sea, its interior takes the shape of an inverted ship’s hull, a symbol of protection. Our Lady’s prominent location near the water provides not only a magnificent view of Boothbay Harbor, but also serves as a beacon for sailors, fisherman and the surrounding community.
Founded in 1729 as the “Church of the Presbyterian Strangers”, the Arlington Street Church is a Unitarian Universalist church, which draws from a variety of religious traditions. While the Unitarian Universalist congregations “tend to retain some Christian traditions, such as Sunday worship with a sermon and the singing of hymns. The extent to which the elements of any particular faith tradition are incorporated into personal spiritual practice is a matter of personal choice for congregants.”(1) Unitarian refers to the belief in one God.
In 1861, the church’s current structure was completed and was the first public building to be constructed on newly filled land in Boston’s Back Bay, sitting on 999 wooden pilings driven into the tidal mud. Architect Arthur Gilman drew inspiration for its exterior from London’s St. Martin-in-the-Fields and its basilica type interior from the Church of the Annunciation in Genoa, Italy. As part of the church’s mission, congregants gather “in love and service for justice and peace.”(2)
Founded in 1850, St. Joseph’s Co-Cathedral is the first French-Canadian national parish in the country, established to serve the spiritual needs of French-speaking Canadian Catholic immigrants. Growth of the congregation and emigration into what is now known as Burlington’s Old North End neighborhood fueled plans to build a new church. Designed in 1883 by Rev. Joseph Michaud, a self-taught architect from Montreal, the new church was designed in a grand Baroque style reminiscent of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The new structure took four years to complete, relying greatly upon the construction labor and financial sacrifices of its parishioners, many of whom were of modest means. Dedicated on Easter Sunday in 1887, St. Joseph’s remains the largest church in Vermont with the capacity to seat more than 1,200 worshipers.
Sunday worship services at The Cathedral of St. John were suspended in spring 2012 due to surmounting repairs and a decreasing parishioner base. Protective plastic now wraps its windows, pews and lectern where sermons had been delivered since the Federal style structure with Gothic details was built over 200 years ago in 1810. Silence now replaces the voices of the choir. The Waterford chandelier no longer shines upon the congregation. Named the official seat for the Episcopal Diocese of Rhode Island in 1929, The Cathedral of St. John has deep roots in Providence. Originally organized in 1722 as King’s Church, nearly three centuries ago, its future is now uncertain.